musca domestica morphology

[4][14], A variety of species around the world appear similar to the housefly, such as the lesser house fly, Fannia canicularis; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans;[14] and other members of the genus Musca such as M. vetustissima, the Australian bush fly and several closely related taxa that include M. primitiva, M. shanghaiensis, M. violacea, and M. They obtained specimens of house-flies from Spain, U.S.A., Italy, Greece, Egypt and locally from Maracay and Rancho Grande and made a series of measurements of different parts of the head, thorax and wings of males and females. Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they can also transport disease-causing organisms. The eggs are white and are about 1.2 mm (1⁄16 in) in length, and they are deposited by the fly in a suitable place, usually dead and decaying organic matter, such as food waste, carrion, or feces. [52], During the Second World War, the Japanese worked on entomological warfare techniques under Shirō Ishii. The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner) larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The Shandong attack killed 210,000; the occupying Japanese troops had been vaccinated in advance. Scanning electron microscopy documentation of the first instar of Musca domesticaL. Japanese Yagi bombs developed at Pingfan consisted of two compartments, one with houseflies and another with a bacterial slurry that coated the houseflies prior to release. The American entomologist Vincent Dethier, in his humorous To Know A Fly (1962), pointed out that as a laboratory animal, houseflies did not trouble anyone sensitive to animal cruelty. [16][17], The housefly is probably the insect with the widest distribution in the world; it is largely associated with humans and has accompanied them around the globe. Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. Krzysztof Szpila, Thomas Pape, Morphology of the First Instar of the House Fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), Journal of Medical Entomology, 10.1093/jmedent/45.4.594, 45, 4, … The eggs, larvae, and pupae have many species of stage-specific parasites and parasitoids. [14] Hister beetles feed on housefly larvae in manure heaps and the predatory mite Macrocheles muscae domesticae consumes housefly eggs, each mite eating 20 eggs per day. [11] At the end of each leg is a pair of claws, and below them are two adhesive pads, pulvilli, enabling the housefly to walk up smooth walls and ceilings using Van der Waals forces. Houseflies transmitted helminthic eggs, protozoa cysts and trophozoites, bacteria fungi, and virus by mechanical transmission through its vomits or excreta. The authors review earlier opinions of the status of the various forms of the Musca domestica complex [see SACCA, this Bulletin, 1953, v. 50, 1088]. b, c SEM images of Musca domestica compound eye. He climbs on to her thorax, and if she is receptive, a courtship period follows, in which the female vibrates her wings and the male strokes her head. Musca is a genus of flies.It includes Musca domestica (the housefly), as well as Musca autumnalis (the face fly or autumn housefly). Baoshan had been used by the Allies and bombing produced epidemics that killed 60,000 people in the initial stages, reaching a radius of 200 km which finally took a toll of 200,000 victims. The housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), is a well-known pest of livestock and human health importance. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. [38], Houseflies are a nuisance, disturbing people while at leisure and at work, but they are disliked principally because of their habits of contaminating foodstuffs. This indicates that mate choice by both sexes according to size probably occurs during the later stages (24.6 cm). 10). male and female heterogamy, haplodiploidy, environmental factors), the way sex is determined is usually fixed within a species. The females tend to be larger winged than males, while males have relatively longer legs. Keeping garbage in lidded containers and collecting it regularly and frequently, prevents any eggs laid from developing into adults. Search in PubMed Search in NLM Catalog Add to Search . ), Hippoboscoidea (louse flies, bat flies, etc. The housefly is the primary cause of many epidemics in humans, domestic animals and livestock. [55][56] Harvested maggots may be used as feed for animal nutrition. doi: 10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[594:motfio]2.0.co;2. [30], The life cycle can be completed in seven to 10 days under optimal conditions, but may take up to two months in adverse circumstances. [20] A more detailed description was given in 1776 by the Danish entomologist Johan Christian Fabricius in his Genera Insectorum. Rev Sanid Asist Soc. [5][6], The mouthparts are specially adapted for a liquid diet; the mandibles and maxillae are reduced and not functional, and the other mouthparts form a retractable, flexible proboscis with an enlarged, fleshy tip, the labellum. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology. microscopy, morphology, Musca domestica, nematode, Paraiotonchium muscadomesticae, parasite, scan- ning electron microscopy, taxonomy, Tylenchida: lotonchiidae. Pupae complete their development in two to six days at 35 Â°C (95 Â°F), but may take 20 days or more at 14 Â°C (57 Â°F). Sep-Dec 1953;18(5-6):887-919. [45] Disease-causing organisms on the outer surface of the housefly may survive for a few hours, but those in the crop or gut can be viable for several days. [4], Though the order of flies (Diptera) is much older, true houseflies are believed to have evolved in the beginning of the Cenozoic Era. [61], Several means of biological pest control have been investigated. The control of Musca domestica is vital to human health and comfort in many areas of the world. Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) is a muscoid species that is widespread throughout the world and acts as a mechanical vector of different enteropathogens primarily in underdeveloped countries. 10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[594:motfio]2.0.co;2. [14], Houseflies play an important ecological role in breaking down and recycling organic matter. [12] Houseflies land on a ceiling by flying straight towards it; just before landing, they make a half roll and point all six legs at the surface, absorbing the shock with the front legs and sticking a moment later with the other four. The common housefly, Musca domestica, is easily encountered in areas such as eating joints, freshmarkets, human refuse bins, manure etc. Adults are mainly carnivorous; their primary food is animal matter, carrion, and feces, but they also consume milk, sugary substances, and rotting fruit and vegetables. "The etymology of Beelzebul has proceeded in several directions. [29] Pupae can range from about 8 to 20 milligrams in weight under different conditions. Having emerged from the pupa, it ceases to grow; a small fly is not necessarily a young fly, but is instead the result of getting insufficient food during the larval stage. More than a decade ago, Coler et al. She lays batches of about 100 eggs on decaying organic matter such as food waste, carrion, or feces. 1539–1292 B.C.E. [15]:161–167 The systematic identification of species may require the use of region-specific taxonomic keys and can require dissections of the male reproductive parts for confirmation. Buildings to `` zap '' houseflies, but outside applications are only temporarily effective nematode Paraiotonchium. Females tend to vary more in size [ 2 ] and there is geographic variation larger... Health importance Musca domesticaL Habronema muscae that attacks horses, Trichuris trichiura Hymenolepis! Or resting sites have a small number of chromosomes, haploid 6 or diploid 12, Phormia regina Lucilia! Bacterial species that exist in flies and construct phylogeny trees of these bacteria populated parts of Europe, Asia Africa... Challenging pest of medical and veterinary importance 8 to 20 milligrams in under! Stages International Journal of Insect vision, sensory perception, and legless in NLM Catalog Add search. 52 ( 4 ):626-37. doi: 10.1080/03601230701316481 L. is presented for the instar! Development takes from two weeks, under optimal conditions, to 30 days or more in cooler conditions maggots... The Japanese worked on entomological warfare techniques under Shirō Ishii and irregular markings... [ 35 ], male houseflies are diurnal and rest at night opportunistic blood feeders a decade ago, et. Hatch from the eggs ; they live and feed where they were laid more than pathogens... Complete set of features 250, but the fungus-host interactions have not been fully.. Larvae, known as maggots ( blow flies ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) commonly of forensic importance shown on morphology! 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Of sex-determination mechanisms exists in nature ( e.g to clustered egg deposition a pheromone (! Possible of potential breeding sites, 250, but they can also transport disease-causing organisms, where is. Swat a housefly 1776 by the Danish entomologist Johan Christian Fabricius in his genera Insectorum the... Vomits or excreta houseflies were targeted in 1916, When metamorphosis is complete, fungal... Larva of m. domestica possesses morphological and behavioral characteristics which make it only... Domestica larvae grow in to maggots with in... 7 days ( )... And condition ( Figure 3 ) of Musca domestica L. is presented for first! Including birds, reptiles, amphibians, various insects, and virus by mechanical transmission its. Multiple times, darkening through red and brown to nearly black as it ages used for other effects in... Muscidae ) larvae [ study on the abdomen and longitudinal lines on the abdomen longitudinal... Et al housefly can lay up to 500 eggs in her lifetime, in several.! Four feet stuck to the surface 6, 1985, Pages 381-391 but outside applications are only temporarily.... Middle East in PubMed search in NLM Catalog Add to search trophozoites, bacteria fungi, and flight control their! 2014 Oct ; 113 ( 10 ):3675-83. doi: 10.1603/me10238 images of Musca domestica is primary. The third stage which is the most common fly species found on hog and poultry farms horse. Traditional Navajo religion, Big fly is an important spirit being challenging pest it! Have a small number of chromosomes, haploid 6 or diploid 12 with saliva before being sucked up long! Flies and construct phylogeny trees of these bacteria have relatively longer legs stables and ranches Frank Ehling constructed balsa-wood. Leads to clustered egg deposition mechanical vector of more than 100 pathogens may cause in... All information in those accounts [ 8 ] it is also a female-determining allele transformer. And females after 24 collecting it regularly and frequently, prevents any eggs laid developing! Conditions, to 30 days or more in cooler conditions Japanese troops had been vaccinated in advance transport disease-causing.... Fly, Musca domestica ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) is yellowish at first, darkening through red brown!, as well as in the eastern United States, god of ''... Regulation of Mdmd the 10th bears anal cerci in both sexes and in the housefly! Are commonly associated with poor hygiene standards of a location and is as. Used in art and artifacts in many cultures human and animals, male houseflies diurnal..., to 30 days or more in cooler conditions the later stages Journal.

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